Performance tuning and Optimize Mysql Database response time
Performance tuning and Optimize Mysql Database response time is
very important for your website or your application to run
efficiently.Now we will see each one separately how todo this
Mysql Database Performance tuning
Mysql provides a configuration file located in /etc/mysql/my.cnf.
From here you can set all of the memory, table, and connection
limits as well as a host of other options.
You can get the default buffer sizes used by the mysqld server
with this command:
shell> mysqld --help
This command produces a list of all mysqld options and
configurable variables. The output includes the default values
and looks something like this:
Possible variables for option --set-variable (-O) are:
back_log current value: 5
bdb_cache_size current value: 1048540
binlog_cache_size current value: 32768
connect_timeout current value: 5
delayed_insert_timeout current value: 300
delayed_insert_limit current value: 100
delayed_queue_size current value: 1000
flush_time current value: 0
interactive_timeout current value: 28800
join_buffer_size current value: 131072
key_buffer_size current value: 1048540
lower_case_table_names current value: 0
long_query_time current value: 10
max_allowed_packet current value: 1048576
max_binlog_cache_size current value: 4294967295
max_connections current value: 100
max_connect_errors current value: 10
max_delayed_threads current value: 20
max_heap_table_size current value: 16777216
max_join_size current value: 4294967295
max_sort_length current value: 1024
max_tmp_tables current value: 32
max_write_lock_count current value: 4294967295
myisam_sort_buffer_size current value: 8388608
net_buffer_length current value: 16384
net_retry_count current value: 10
net_read_timeout current value: 30
net_write_timeout current value: 60
read_buffer_size current value: 131072
record_rnd_buffer_size current value: 131072
slow_launch_time current value: 2
sort_buffer current value: 2097116
table_cache current value: 64
thread_concurrency current value: 10
tmp_table_size current value: 1048576
thread_stack current value: 131072
wait_timeout current value: 28800
Please note that --set-variable is deprecated
since MySQL 4.0, just use --var=option on its own.
If there is a mysqld server currently running, you can see what
values it actually is using for the variables by executing this
shell> mysqladmin variables
MySQL uses algorithms that are very scalable, so you can usually
run with very little memory. If you, however, give MySQL more
memory, you will normally also get better performance.
When tuning a MySQL server, the two most important variables to
use are key_buffer_size and table_cache. You should first feel
confident that you have these right before trying to change any
of the other variables.
If you have much memory (>=256M) and many tables and want
maximum performance with a moderate number of clients, you
should use something like this:
If you are doing a GROUP BY or ORDER BY on files that are much
bigger than your available memory you should increase the value
of record_rnd_buffer to speed up the reading of rows after the
sorting is done.
When you have installed MySQL, the `support-files' directory
will contain some different `my.cnf' example files, `my-huge.cnf',
`my-large.cnf', `my-medium.cnf', and `my-small.cnf', you can use
as a base to optimise your system.
If there are very many connections, ``swapping problems'' may
occur unless mysqld has been configured to use very little
memory for each connection. mysqld performs better if you have
enough memory for all connections, of course.
Note that if you change an option to mysqld, it remains in
effect only for that instance of the server.
To see the effects of a parameter change, do something like
shell> mysqld -O key_buffer=32m --help
Make sure that the --help option is last; otherwise, the effect
of any options listed after it on the command-line will not be
reflected in the output.
max_connections = 500 – You need to use mysqlreport tool(http://hackmysql.com/mysqlreport)
to check how many current connections you have, and under very
heavy load (2000 simultaneous users) You may rarely hit 400
concurrent connections to the database. This is because most
connections only last for a few milliseconds.
key_buffer = 384M - When tuning a MySQL server, key_buffer_size
is very important. This number works well for me and with the
mysqlreport script I rarely use 50% of the available memory.
table_cache = 1800 – After key_buffer the next most important
variable is your table cache. Again this is set for vBulletin so
you may be able to significantly reduce this value depending on
the number of tables in your database.
wait_timeout = 7200 – This variable determines the timeout in
seconds before mysql will dump a connection. If set to low you
will likely receive mySQL server has gone away errors in your
log, which in vBulletin’s case is quite common.
max_allowed_packet = 16M – Again if set to low (the default is
8M) users will likely experience errors. 16M has always worked
fine for my production environments.
One more important tool we have already menctioned
is the best tool available for free you can check your mysql
database server performance.
Optimize Mysql Database response time
The most important part for getting a system fast is of course
the basic design. You also need to know what kinds of things
your system will be doing, and what your bottlenecks are.
The most common bottlenecks are:
Disk seeks. It takes time for the disk to find a piece of data.
With modern disks in 1999, the mean time for this is usually
lower than 10ms, so we can in theory do about 100 seeks a
second. This time improves slowly with new disks and is very
hard to optimise for a single table. The way to optimise this is
to spread the data on more than one disk.
Disk reading/writing. When the disk is at the correct position
we need to read the data. With modern disks in 1999, one disk
delivers something like 10-20 MB. This is easier to optimise
than seeks because you can read in parallel from multiple disks.
CPU cycles. When we have the data in main memory (or if it
already were there) we need to process it to get to our result.
Having small tables compared to the memory is the most common
limiting factor. But then, with small tables speed is usually
not the problem.
Memory bandwidth. When the CPU needs more data than can fit in
the CPU cache the main memory bandwidth becomes a bottleneck.
This is an uncommon bottleneck for most systems, but one should
be aware of it.
Some of the available options we will see now
Disable DNS Hostname Lookup
open you /etc/mysql/my.cnf file and use –skip-name-resolve
option file looks like below.
When this option is activated, you can only use IP numbers in
the MySQL Grant table.
How MySQL uses DNS
When a new thread connects to mysqld, mysqld will spawn a new
thread to handle the request. This thread will first check if
the hostname is in the hostname cache. If not the thread will
call gethostbyaddr_r() and gethostbyname_r() to resolve the
If the operating system doesn't support the above thread-safe
calls, the thread will lock a mutex and call gethostbyaddr() and
gethostbyname() instead. Note that in this case no other thread
can resolve other hostnames that is not in the hostname cache
until the first thread is ready.
You can disable DNS host lookup by starting mysqld with
--skip-name-resolve. In this case you can however only use IP
names in the MySQL privilege tables.
If you have a very slow DNS and many hosts, you can get more
performance by either disabling DNS lookop with
--skip-name-resolve or by increasing the HOST_CACHE_SIZE define
(default: 128) and recompile mysqld.
You can disable the hostname cache with --skip-host-cache. You
can clear the hostname cache with FLUSH HOSTS or mysqladmin
If you don't want to allow connections over TCP/IP, you can do
this by starting mysqld with --skip-networking.
Activate Query Cache
mysql> SHOW STATUS LIKE ‘Qcache%’;
If you find any problems with query cache memory was left. It
was neccessary to increase the query cache size.
To get an overview of your query_cache variables state, use the
mysql> SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘%query_cache%’;
You need to have the query cache enabled in the first place (have_query_cache
| YES) and make sure that query_cache_type is set to ON. This is
usually activated by default on most linux distribution.
Now, you can increase the query cache size (let say you want
mysql> SET GLOBAL query_cache_size = 52428800;
If you want this setting to be kept when restarting mysql, add: