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Understanding File Extensions in Linux

Extensions are file name suffixes that start with a period. Usually, they are two or three letters long.

Linux can read many file extensions used by other platforms, such as

jpg for a graphic file, or .html for a web file. It can also use
them for mime types. However, Linux does not always use extensions to identify file types.

Often, the directory where a file is placed is a better indication of what type of file it is.

However, Linux does use a few regular extensions.

Extensions Used in Linux
   Extension                                                   File Type
.bz2 A file compressed using bzip2 .
.c A file written in the C programming language.
.conf A configuration file. In some cases, "conf" is used in a file name, but not as an extension.
.deb A Debian package for installing software.
.lock A lock file that prevents the use of another file.
.rpm A Red Hat package file. Although you can sometimes use .rpm s in Debian, doing so can have unexpected results and is not generally recommended. You can also convert packages using the alien utility .
.so A shared object (a library or module).
.src A source code file. Written in plain text, a source file must be compiled to be used.
.tar A single file made of a collection of files archived using the tar command.
.tar.gz A single file made of a collection of files archived using the tar command, then compressed used the gzip command.
.tgz A single file made of a collection of files archived using the tar command, then compressed used the gzip command.
.gz A file compressed using the gzip command.
.txt a plain ASCII text file
.ps a PostScript file; formatted for printing
.au an audio file
.wav an audio file
.xpm an image file
.jpg a graphical or image file, such as a photo or artwork
.gif a graphical or image file
.pdf an electronic image of a document
.a an archive file
.h a C or C++ program language header file
.cpp a C++ program language source code file
.o a program object file
.php a PHP Script
.sh a Shell Script
.png a graphical or image file
.tcl a TCL script
.pl a Perl script
.html/.htm an HTML file